Dr. Saira Asad
The emergence of the Taliban is seen in 1994 which is considered a religious, military as well as political movement in the form of the Civil War in Afghanistan.
The movement is based on Islamic Shariah Law. Taliban was internationally criticized from time to time for their harsh treatment towards Afghans for the Islamic Shariah law enforcement.
Afghanistan is a soil of fighters as seen in 1979 by the Soviet Army invasion that laid the foundation of the communist government. More than one million people lost their lives in this war. In 1989, Soviet troops left Afghanistan. Mujahideen overthrew the installed Afghan ruler Najibullah that also triggered the civil war.
In 1996, the Taliban was able to seize control of the capital city Kabul by the imposition of strict Islamic Shariah Law. Following the 9/11 attack in 2001, the US invaded Afghanistan for the elimination of Al-Qaeda and Osama Bin Laden. Hamid Karzai was appointed by the US as head of an interim power-sharing government.
Nato assumed responsibility for maintaining peace in 2002 and 2004, Hamid Karzai was elected as president. After 10 years in 2014, Ashraf Ghani was elected president and Nato ended its mission on growing insurgency.
In the current year 2021, Kabul has been recaptured after the withdrawal of US troops as per the Doha agreement of 2019. According to Brown University Research, the estimated loss of Afghan security forces is 69,000 lives, whereas militants and civilians were almost 51,000 in this war.
After the longest war of 20 years, The Taliban is seen with a new approach and ideology and determined to respect the fundamental human rights in their governance per Islamic teachings including rights of education of women and girls; freedom of expression; right to participation of females; abolition of attacks on civilians; freedom to media, and accountability for serious war crimes and human rights violations.
Since 2015, the Taliban is seen ensuring internal accountability by their public statements and portraying their moderate image. Females are said to be able to attend schools and work and have announced no revenge on Afghans who worked with the former governments, U.S, or its allies.
A new approach in their ideology could be seen and a new Taliban emerges as their spokesperson Zabihullah Mujahid also stated that they have learned a lot from this war and today’s Taliban is changed with a new approach and this victory is a lesson for invaders.
Democratic chair of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, Gregory Meeks stated to MSNBD that one should never say never, but the Taliban has to show a lot in upholding the human rights principles with time. No doubt, this war is won by determination and faith in emaan by Taliban as Lt General (R ) Ghulam Mustafa, Defence Analyst spoke to BOL TV on 2nd September 2021 that Taliban’s emaan and determination for freedom have shown their ideology and opened an exemplary path for freedom fighters.
Since 2001, U.S attempted to preserve security gains and political human rights in Afghanistan. The taking over Afghanistan once again by the Taliban taking us on the same platform after a huge economic and human loss. The increase of humanitarian crisis and resettling of refugees have forced the neighboring countries to respond.
In addition, Pakistan, India, China, and Russia are seen showing interest in Afghanistan for their influence. China’s main objective is to reduce instability in Afghanistan, eliminate terrorism, and be interested in minerals for trade purposes.
Maj General (R) Inam Ul Haq, Defence Analyst stated research with the estimated cost of minerals in Afghan soil in his article on September 2nd, 2021 that Afghanistan has up to $3 trillion minerals, 60 million tons of copper, 2.2 million tons of iron ore, and 1.4 million tons of rare minerals. Pakistan being a Muslim neighboring county is also looking forward to a stable Afghanistan.
China is being considered a potential trade partner. Russia also wants to benefit economically without interfering directly with the presence of China, India, and Iran in a potential regional economic trade system.
India showed its presence with the development infrastructure in form of roads, dams, electricity transmission lines and substations, hospitals, and schools by taking back of U.S. for long term advantages but with the withdrawal of the U.S. troops, the morale of India could be seen demoralized.
In a nutshell, after 20 years of war and experience, the Taliban is seen with a different approach. U.S Secretary of Defence, Robert Gates stated once that war is a short-lived success, the matter is of changing the behavior, attitude, and will of people.
In the issue of Afghanistan, the negotiations proved a vital turning point where both ends discussed the peaceful and acceptable solution of the conflict. We all are looking forward to a stable and democratic government with all respect to fundamental human rights in Afghanistan.
Dr. Saira Asad is a researcher, and columnist from University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia (UTHM). She can be contacted at email@example.com.
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